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30/11/2012

English Grammar

UNIT 1

Possessive´s

When we want to show that something belongs to somebody or something, we usually add’s to a singular noun and an apostrophe ' to a plural noun.

By adding an apostrophe and an s we can manage to transform most singular nouns into their possessive form:

Explanation

 

We use possessive 's with a...

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UNIT 1

Possessive´s

When we want to show that something belongs to somebody or something, we usually add’s to a singular noun and an apostrophe ' to a plural noun.

By adding an apostrophe and an s we can manage to transform most singular nouns into their possessive form:

Explanation

 

We use possessive 's with a person to talk about relatives and possessions

  • They are Lisa'sparents.
  • It'sJonh's car.

We use possessive 's with irregular plural people: men, women, children, people.

  • These are my children's toys.
  • Those women's skirts are too short.

We use possessive s' with regular plural people

  • They are my parents' friends.

We never use 's with things.

  • The end of the story (NOT the story's end).

 

Example

This is Peter's book

Let's go to the Smiths'

The children's room is upstairs

John's sister is twelve years old

Susan and Steve's bags have blue stickers

Men's shoes are on the second floor

My parents' car was not expensive

Charles's CD player is new

Charles's CD player is new

This is the boy's bike

These are the boys' pencils

 

Present simple - s/ - es endings

Most verbs

+ s

I/ You/ We/ They start

He/ She/ It starts

I know   He knows

I work  She works

 

Verbs ending with o/s/sh/ch/x

+ es

I/ You/ We/ They finish

He/ She/ It finishes

pass     passes /wish wishes

match matches/mix mixes

 

Verbs ending with y

Y + ies

I/ You/ We/ They study

He/ She/ Itstudies

hurryhurries /copycopies

staystays / enjoyenjoys

 

 

Example

Sam gets(get) up at seven o´clock

Maria teaches (teach) Spanish

The bus arrives (arrive) at 8.25 a.m

My mother works (work) in a bookshop

He watches(watch) TV in the evening

She kisses (kiss) her children every morning.

 

be and do in questions

 

Be

do

Present

Areyou the new boss?

HowisHolly?

Do you likeyour job?

Where doesAnna work?

Past

Were you late for work?

WherewasJustin?

Did they go to work?

Which watch didhe buy?

 

Example

Do you like to play soccer?

Gabriela doesn'tlike to watch T.V.

John is upset because he has a lot of homework and he doesn't  like to do homework.

Armando and Juan don't  like to play tennis

How do you like the food in the U.S.?

Do  you study English a lot?

I know how to speak Spanish, but I don't  know how to speak French.

Javier doesn't  like American football.

Miguel is worried because he doesn't  have his homework.

Does Oscar know how to speak Spanish?

Are Betty and Linda going to be here today?

.Is Ms. Smith a teacher?

Mary and Rocioare doing thier homework.

Whereisthe bathroom?

Rocio and Olga aren't coming to class today.

I know how to speak Spanish, but I don't know how to speak French.

Javier doesn't  like American football.

Present simple and present continuo

Use the present simple to talk about things that happen sometimes or all the time, and things that are generally.

 

+

-

?

I/ You/ We/ They go to work

I/ You/ We/ They don´tto work

Do I/ You/ We/ They go to work

He/ She/ It goes  to work

He/ She/ It doesn´t go to work

Does he/she/it  go to work

Use the present continuous to talk about what´s a happening now

REMEMBER: there are some verbs which are not used in the continuous: believe, want, love, hate ...

 

 

+

-

?

I´m drivingto work

m not drivingto work

Am I driving to work

You/we/they´re drivingto work

You/we/They aren´t drivingto work

Are you/we/they driving to work

He/ She/ It´s drivingto work

He/ She/ It isn´t drivingto work

Is he/she/it driving to work?

 

Present Simple

PresentContinuous

Routines / Habits : Mariasmokes

Actions happening NOW: Maria is smoking

Permanent Actions: Pedro lives in Sevilla

Temporary actions: Juan is staying at the Marriot hotel.

 

 

 

Example

 

They don’t play football on Sundays.

My uncle lives in a small town.

We´re learning about the present continuous now.

It's hot today. She isn´t wearing a jacket.

Where are you going now?

Do you want anything from the supermarket?

 

 

 

 

What are you doing (do) at the moment?

I´m not wearing (not wear) jeans today

Does he go (go) to our school?

We usually play (play) tennis at the weekend

I´working (work) at home today

She doesn´t do (not do) her homework at weekends

Shhh! Be quiet. I´m studying  (study).

We don't usually watch (watch) TV in the evening

They´re going (go) for a coffee now

Do you always wear (wear) a suit for work?

We normallyget up  (get up) at 7.30 a.m

Heis´t working (not / work) today

 

 

 

Subject pronouns and possessive adjectives

 

Use subject pronouns with verbs

Use possessive adjectives with nouns.

 

Subject pronouns

I

You

He

She

It

We

they

Possessive adjectives

My

Your

His

Her

Its

Our

their

 

Subject pronouns

 

Characteristics

 

Thesepronounsalways workassubject iego before the verbat the beginningof the sentence..

 

I am his sister

He is at school

They are very ill.

 

 

Whenthe sentenceis negativeor positivethese pronounsgo at the beginningof the sentencebut whenisinterrogative, gobehind theauxiliary.

 

Example

 

  • It is a cat
  • Does heplay  the guitar?

               Yes, he does

  •  

 

 

Possessive adjectives

 

      These adjectivesindicatepossession

      as they always are adjectives before a noun

 

That is our house

Where is my book

It is on their table?

 

Example

 

v  They boy likes his school

v  Mary sees her mother everyday

v  My friends bring their children to our house on Saturdays

 

UNIT 2

 

How questions

 

Use How + adjective….? To ask for information about price age distances, etc.

 

How Questions

Answers

Howlong is the journey to Snowdo?

 It´s an hour

Howold is the Colosseum in Rome?

It´s 2000 years old

Howfar is the Lomdon Eye form Big Ben ?

It´s 500 metres

Howhigh is the Eiffel Tower?

It´s 320 metres tall

Howmuch is an Adult ticket?

It´s $21

 

Example

 

How often do you go to the cinema?              once a month
How tall is tom cruise?                                   1m68
How good are you at gym?                             not bad
How far is the station?                                    about half a mile from here
How high is this tower?                                  more than 300 metres
How much butter do i need for this cake?      half a pound
How long must i cook it?                                for 45 minutes

 

 

Adjective order

 

Adjectives can be used to describe lots of things, from physical size, age, shape, colour, material, to more abstract things like opinion, origin and purpose. We can use adjectives together to give a detailed description of something. Adjectives that express opinions usually come before all others, but it can sometimes depend on what exactly you want to emphasise.

Use adjective to describe people and things

 

Put an adjective before a noun

A pretty village. A white village

Put adjectives of opinion before adjectives os fact

A prettywhite village

 

It is common inEnglishlanguageusemore than oneadjectivebefore a noun-for example,

   "He's a sillyyoung fool"
   "She is a smart, energetic.
"When using more than oneadjective, place them in the correct order, according to the type.

 

Example

 

He drives an big, expensive, German car.
Her employer is an interesting, old, Dutch man.

an interesting book, a boring lecture

 

NOTE: We usually use no more than three adjectives preceding a noun.

  1. Opinion

Example:an interesting book, a boring lecture

  1. Dimension

Example:a big apple, a thin wallet

  1. Age

Example:a new car, a modern building, an ancient ruin

  1. Shape

Example:a square box, an oval mask, a round ball

  1. Color

Example:a pink hat, a blue book, a black coat

  1. Origin

Example:some Italian shoes, a Canadian town, an American car

  1. Material

Example:a wooden box, a woolen sweater, a plastic toy

Here are some examples of nouns modified with three adjectives in the correct order based on the list above. Noticethattheadjectives are notseparatedbycommas.

  • A wonderful old Italian clock. (opinion - age - origin)
  • A big square blue box. (dimension - shape - color)
  • A disgusting pink plastic ornament. (opinion - color - material)
  • Some slim new French trousers. (dimension - age - origin)

 

Comparative and superlative adjectives

 

Use comparative + than to compare two things

 

One- syllable adjectives

+er or r

Old > older large > larger

One – syllable adjectives that end vowel + consonant

Double the consonant + er

Big > bigger hot > hotter

Adjectives that end y

y + ier

Heavy > heavier pretty > prettier

Adjectives with more than one syllable

More + adjective

Famous > more famous interesting > more interesting

Irregular adjectives

 

Good > better bad > worse

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Use the + superlative to compare more than two things

 

 

 

 

One- syllable adjectives

The +estor st

old >the oldest  large >the largest

One – syllable adjectives that end vowel + consonant

The + double the consonant + est

big>the biggest hot > the hottest

Adjectives that end y

The y+ iest

 

dry >the driest

pretty >the prettiest

Adjectives with more than one syllable

 

The most + adjective

 famous >the most famous

interesting > the most interesting

Irregular adjectives

 

Good >the best bad >the worst

 

 

 

 

Example

 

One-syllable adjectives

 

Form the comparative and superlative forms of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the comparative form and –est for the superlative.

One-SyllableAdjective

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

tall

taller

tallest

old

older

oldest

long

longer

longest

  • Mary is tallerthan Max.
  • Mary is the tallestof all the students.
  • Max is olderthan John.
  • Of the three students, Max is the oldest.
  • My hair is longerthan your hair.
  • Max's story is the longeststory I've ever heard.

If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form and –st for the superlative form.

One-Syllable Adjective with Final -e

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

large

larger

largest

wise

wiser

wisest

  • Mary's car is largerthan Max's car.
  • Mary's house is the tallestof all the houses on the block.
  • Max is wiserthan his brother.
  • Max is the wisestperson I know.

If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and add –er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add –est for the superlative form.

One-Syllable Adjective Ending with a Single Consonant with a Single Vowel before It

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

big

bigger

biggest

thin

thinner

thinnest

fat

fatter

fattest

  • My dog is biggerthan your dog.
  • My dog is the biggestof all the dogs in the neighborhood.
  • Max is thinnerthan John.
  • Of all the students in the class, Max is the thinnest.
  • My mother is fatterthan your mother.
  • Mary is the fattestperson I've ever seen.

Two-syllable adjectives

 

With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.

Two-SyllableAdjective

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

peaceful

more peaceful

mostpeaceful

pleasant

more pleasant

mostpleasant

careful

more careful

mostcareful

thoughtful

more thoughtful

mostthoughtful

  • This morning is more peacefulthan yesterday morning.
  • Max's house in the mountains is the most peacefulin the world.
  • Max is more carefulthan Mike.
  • Of all the taxi drivers, Jack is the most careful.
  • Jill is more thoughtfulthan your sister.
  • Mary is the most thoughtfulperson I've ever met.

If the two-syllable adjectives ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form. For the superlative form change the y to i and add –est.

Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -y

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

happy

happier

happiest

angry

angrier

angriest

busy

busier

busiest

  • John is happier today than he was yesterday.
  • John is the happiest boy in the world.
  • Max is angrierthan Mary.
  • Of all of John's victims, Max is the angriest.
  • Mary is busierthan Max.
  • Mary is the busiestperson I've ever met.

Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative forms.

Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -er, -le, or -ow

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

narrow

narrower

narrowest

gentle

gentler

gentlest

  • The roads in this town are narrowerthan the roads in the city.
  • This road is the narrowestof all the roads in California.
  • Big dogs are gentlerthan small dogs.
  • Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.

Adjectives with three or more syllables

 

For adjectives with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.

Adjective with Three or More Syllables

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

generous

more generous

mostgenerous

important

more important

mostimportant

intelligent

more intelligent

mostintelligent

  • John is more generousthan Jack.
  • John is the most generousof all the people I know.
  • Health is more importantthan money.
  • Of all the people I know, Max is the most important.
  • Women are more intelligentthan men.
  • Mary is the most intelligentperson I've ever met.

Exceptions.

Irregular adjectives.

Irregular Adjective

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

far

farther

farthest

little

less

least

many

more

most

  • Italian food is betterthan American food.
  • My dog is the best dog in the world.
  • My mother's cooking is worsethan your mother's cooking.
  • Of all the students in the class, Max is the worst.

Two-syllable adjectives that follow two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er and -est and with more and most.

Two-SyllableAdjective

ComparativeForm

SuperlativeForm

clever

cleverer

cleverest

clever

more clever

mostclever

gentle

gentler

gentlest

gentle

more gentle

mostgentle

friendly

friendlier

friendliest

friendly

more friendly

mostfriendly

quiet

quieter

quietest

quiet

more quiet

mostquiet

simple

simpler

simplest

simple

more simple

most simple

  • Big dogs are gentlerthan small dogs.
  • Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.
  • Big dogs are more gentlethan small dogs.
  • Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the most gentle.

Past simple

 

Use the past simple to talk about actions that are finished

 

+

-

?

I/ You / He/ She/ It/

We/ They visited Spain

I/ You / He/ She/ It/

We/ Theydidn´t visit Spain

Did You/ We/ They visit Spain?

Where did he/ she it visit?

 

Short answers

Yes, I/ You / He/ She/ It/

We/ Theydid

No, I/ You / He/ She/ It/

We/ Theydidn´t

 

Spelling note: - ed endings

 

Most verbs

+ ed

Visit >visted

Verbs that end e

+ d

Live > lived

Verbs that end consonant + y

y +ied

Study > studied

One – syllable verbs that end one vowel + one consonant

Double the consonant + ed

Stop > stopped

 

 

FORM

[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs

Examples:

  • YoucalledDebbie.
  • DidyoucallDebbie?
  • You did not call Debbie.

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

 

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.

Examples:

  • I saw a movie yesterday.
  • I didn't see a play yesterday.
  • Last year, I traveled to Japan.
  • Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
  • Did you have dinner last night?
  • Shewashedher car.
  • He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

 

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.

Examples:

  • I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
  • He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
  • Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

 

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.

Examples:

  • I lived in Brazil for two years.
  • Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
  • They sat at the beach all day.
  • They did not stay at the party the entire time.
  • We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
  • A: How long did you wait for them?
    B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in thePast

 

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

Examples:

  • I studied French when I was a child.
  • He playedtheviolin.
  • He didn't play the piano.
  • Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
  • She worked at the movie theater after school.
  • They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 PastFactsorGeneralizations

 

The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."

Examples:

  • She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
  • He didn't like tomatoes before.
  • Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
  • People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. Theexamplesbelowcontainwhen-clauses.

Examples:

  • When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
  • She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.

When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.

Example:

  • I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.

Examples:

  • YoujustcalledDebbie.
  • Did you just call Debbie?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:

  • Tom repairedthe car. Active
  • The car was repaired by Tom. Passive

UNIT 3

HOW TO TALK ABOUT LIKES AND DISLIKES

We talk about activities we like and dislike, we can use the verb LIKE.

The subject of the sentence is the object in English.  It is literally translated as “Swimming is pleasing to me/you/her.” 

GRAMMAR

 

v  Use like + verb + - ing to talk about things you like / dislike now.

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

QUESTION

I/ You/ We/ They like snowboarding

I/ You/ We/ Theydon´t like snowboarding

Do I/ You/ We/ Theylike snowboarding?

He/ She / It likes snowboarding

He/ She / Itdoesn´t likes snowboarding

Does he/she/ Itlike snowboarding?

 

Short answers

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

Yes, I/ You / We / They do

No,I/ You / We / They don´t

Yes, he / She/ Itdoes

No, he / She/ Itdoesn´t

 

 

GRAMMAR LIKE DOING; WOULD LIKE TO DO

 

v  Use would like + infinite to talk about things you want / don´t want to do in the future

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

QUESTION

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They´d  like surfing in Salinas

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They wouldn´t like to surf in Salinas

WouldI/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ Theylike to surf in Salinas?

 

Short answers

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

Yes, I/ You / We / They would

No,I/ You / We / They wouldn´t

Yes, he/ She/ It  would

No, he/ She/ It  wouldn´t

 

 

Let´s Talk about your own likes and dislikes with regard to these adventure sports!

VOCABULARY

Skiing

 

Waterskiing

 

Snowboarding

 

Windsurfing

 

 

Skating

 

Skydiving

 

Surfing

 

Ice climbing

 

Roller skating

 

Scuba diving

 

Climbing

 

 

Diving

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO TALK ABOUT YOUR ABILITIES

We talk about your abilities, we can use the verbs CAN, COULD and ABLE TO, in the text.

 

GRAMMAR

v  Use can for ability in the present.

v  Use could for ability in the past.

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

QUESTION

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They can play the guitar;

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/We/ They can´t play the guitar;

CanI/ You/ He/ She/ It/We/ Theyplay the guitar?

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They could walk when was one year old was.

I/ You/ He/ She/ It/We/ They couldn´t walk when was one year old.

CouldI/ You/ He/ She/ It/We/ Theywalk when was one year old?

 

v  Use be able to, to talk about ability, but it is less common than can.

I want be able to speak Chinese

She want  be able to surfing en Miami

 

 

Short answers

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

Yes, I / You/ He/ She/ It/ We/ They can

No,, I/ You/ He/ She/ It/We/ They can´t

Yes, he/ She/ It  could

No, he/ She/ It  couldn´t

 

 

Let´s Talk about your abilities.

VOCABULARY

PLAY

Golf, tennis, chess, the piano, the guitar, football, violins

MAKE

Dinner, clothes, sandwich, lunch, the bed, sentences.

DO

Jigsaws, crosswords, puzzles, homework, task.

READ

Music, Arabic, Chinese, a map, a newspaper, magazine.

USE

A computer, phone, machine, I.D., pen, pencil.

RIDE

A horse, a motorbike, bike.

 

HOW TO SUGGEST WHAT TO DO

 

We talk about your possibility, we use COULD, in the text.

 

GRAMMAR

v  Could, we use it to say that someone had the ability to do something in the past (ability).

v  Could, we use it to say that someone had the possibility to do something in the present (Possibility)

 

IN THE PAST ( ABILITY)

IN THE PRESENT (POSSIBILITY)

My husband could speak five languages

We could clean our apartment tonight.

She could write  when she was four years old

she could go to dance this night

 

 

MAKING SUGGESTIONS (SHALL)

v  We usethe first personsingularandplural.

v  We useto formulatean invitation.

v  We useinthe secondand third personwhen they promiseto help another.

 

 

I feel really hot, Shall I open a window?

We shall all be old one day

Carla, you shall go to party!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HOW TO TALK ABOUT WHAT´S GOING TO HAPPEN

We talk about what´s going to happen, seems sure to happen, use GOING TO (predictions).

GRAMMAR

v  Use (going to) to prediction the future, based on things now.

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

QUESTION

I´mgoing to buya new TV.

I´m not going to buy a new TV.

Am I going to buy a new TV?

You/ We/ They ´regoing to miss the train at 9 o´clock

You/ We/ They  aren´t going to missthe train at 9 o´clock

Are You/ We/ They going to miss the train at 9 o´clock

He/ She/ It´sgoing to playwith a ball

He/ She/ It  isn´t going toplay with a ball

IsHe/ She/ It going toplay with a ball?

 

Short answers

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

Yes, I am

No,I´m not

Yes, you/ We/ They are

No, you/ We/ Theyaren´t

Yes, he/ She/ It is

No, he/ She/ It  isn´t

 

 

TYPES OF STORY:

VOCABULARY

A COMEDY

A funny story

A THRILLER

An exciting story about crime

A HORROR STORY

A very frightening story, about vampires

A NOVEL

A book with a fictional story

A PLAY

A story for the theatre

A ROMANCE

A love story

AN ACTION FILM

A film with a lot of fast action

AN EPIC

A long story about a time in history

SCIENCE FICTION

A story about science and technology of the future

 

UNIT 4

HOW TO ASK FOR THINGS IN A HOTEL

Wetalk about of the hotel words and phrases and can or could as (requests).

 

GRAMMAR

 

v  We use can to ask for permission to do something

v  We use could you / could I,  as a polite way of telling or asking someone to do something

v   

For permission to do something

For someone to do something

Can I have room service, please?

Could you send me another bottle of shampoo please?

Can I help you?

Could I see your passport, please?

 

 

HOTEL WORDS

VOCABULARY

Sheet

Floor

Soap

Blanket

Mini-bar

Glass

Tap

Lamp

Towel

Remote control

Toilet roll

Pillow

Ashtray

Shampoo

 

 

 

 

HOW TO SAY WHAT´S AT HOME

We talk about the accidents at home with the verb in the present perfect for recent events.

GRAMMAR

v  Use the present perfect to talk about a past action when you are interested in the present result.

v  Use subject + Auxiliary (have or has) + verb past participle + complement.

 

SUBJECT

AUXILIARY

VERB PAST PARTICIPLE

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30/11/2012

English Grammar

UNIT 1

Possessive´s

When we want to show that something belongs to somebody or something, we usually add’s to a singular noun and an apostrophe ' to a plural noun.

By adding an apostrophe and an s we can manage to transform most singular nouns into their possessive form:

Explanation

 

We use possessive 's with a...